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Contact us | register | login quick search advanced search » home about tocris our history our ethos careers at tocris tocris in the news events & conferences environment licensing support customer support technical support contact us distributors leave feedback resources peptide nomenclature guide pharmacological glossary useful abbreviations molarity calculator dilution calculator literature custom services brochure new product updates new product e-alerts product guides scientific reviews life science posters update your details special offers bulk quantities custom synthesis pharmacology all targets 7-tm receptors ion channels nuclear receptors enzyme-linked receptors transporters enzymes other pharmacology cellular processes angiogenesis apoptosis cell cycle cell metabolism cytoskeleton & motor proteins ecm & adhesion molecules epigenetics signal transduction stem cells signaling pathways product type all products new products small molecules peptides controlled substances toxins caged compounds fluorescent probes screening libraries ligand sets other product types research area cancer cardiovascular system endocrinology immunology neuroscience pain & inflammation respiratory system home » research area » neuroscience research » parkinson's disease research parkinson's disease research parkinson's disease (pd) is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system that often impairs motor skills, speech, and other functions. Symptoms of the disease include resting tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity. The primary symptoms are the result of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia, normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine, which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the brain. Symptoms of the disease appear once 50-80% of dopamine neurons have died. viagra online generic Parkinson's disease is both chronic and progressive. Parkinson's disease research product areas 5-ht receptors acetylcholine muscarinic receptors acetylcholine nicotinic receptors adenosine receptors adrenergic receptors bcl-2 family calcium channels caspase cyclooxygenase dopamine receptors gabaa and gabac receptors gabab receptors glutamate (ionotropic) receptors glutamate (metabotropic) receptors heat shock proteins histone methyltransferases monoamine oxidase lrrk2 neuronal metabolism trk receptors vesicular monoamine transporters pathogenesis of parkinson's disease the mechanism by which neurons are lost in pd may be a results of the formation of lewy bodies. Lewy bodies are the histological hallmark of pd. They are composed primarily of fibrillar α-synuclein-ubiquitin complexes that can not be directed to the proteasome for degradation. These complexes aggregate in neurons, forming lewy bodies. order viagra online Early in the disease, lewy bodies appear in the olfactory bulb and lower brain stem. As pd progresses and becomes symptomatic, lewy body deposition and dopaminergic cell loss occurs in the substantia nigra pars compacta (snpc). The precise pathogenic pathway in which lewy bodies cause cell death is not known. A common theory is that lewy bodies cause oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitoxicity and inflammation. This leads to proteasomal dysfunction and improper protein metabolism, which promotes lewy body formation. cheapest prices on generic viagra Neuronal dysfunctional and apoptosis follows in the progressive neurodegenerative process of pd. The locus ceruleus and substantia innominata are also involved in the degenerative process. Advanced pd exhibits prominent non-dopaminergic features and the serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and gabaergic pathways are compromised. Neurons are lost in the cortex, subcortex, brainstem and other peripheral autonomic sites. It is the loss of these non-dopaminergic pathways that is the major cause of the non-motor symptoms of pd, including cognitive decline and autonomic dysfunction. Recently, the role of mitochondria in pd pathogenesis has become apparent. In the substantia nigra of pd brains the activity of mitochondrial complex i is significantly reduced. Function is not reduced within other pd brain areas. generic order viagra Furthermore, all environmental toxins identified so far that cause parkinsonism are mitochondrial inhibitors of complex i. delivery overnight viagra Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of pd, with a small percentage of cases known to be hereditary. viagra over the counter Environmental factors that increase the risk of pd include living in a rural environment and increased exposure to herbicides and insecticides. Smoking and coffee consumption are known to reduce the risk of developing pd. viagra online generic α-synuclein gene mutation or multiplication can cause autosomal-dominant pd; mutations in the gene encoding lrrk2 have also been linked to late-onset and famililal parkinson's disease. Both genetic and environmental etiologies share a common pathogenic pathway. Pharmacological intervention the main motor features that are characteristic of pd are mainly due to the loss of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Pharmacological treatments of pd aim to. buy viagra no prescription viagra online generic Are your interactive marketing initiatives keeping pace with the marketplace?

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